2017 · CGH · Podcast

GI Pearls – September 15-30 2017 – Episode 10

Show Notes for September 15-30, 2017  Episode 010
  1. Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 – Lancet
  2. Proton Pump Inhibitors Decrease Phlebotomy Need in HFE Hemochromatosis: Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial – Gastro
  3. Influence of Age and Eosinophilic Esophagits on Esophageal Distensibility in a Pediatric cohort – Am J Gastro
  4. Long-Term CRC Incidence After Negative Colonoscopy in the State of Utah: Teh effect of Family History. – Am J Gastro
  5. Fecal Incontinence Is associated with Mortality Among Older Adults with Complex Needs – Am J Gastro
  6. Screening for Occult Cancer in Patients with Unprovoked Venous Thromboembolism – Annals of IM
  7. The Durability of Antireflux Surgery – JAMA
  8. Association of prophylactic endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients with upper GI bleeds and cardiopulmonary unplanned events – GIE
  9. Age of red cells for transfusion and outcomes in critically ill adults. – NEJM
  10. The Natural History of Sever Acute Liver Injury – Am J Gastro
  11. Esophageal Dilation with either bougie or balloon technique as a treatment for eosinophilic esophagitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis – GIE
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2017 · Podcast

GI Pearls – September 1-15 2017 – Episode 9

Show Notes for September 1-15 2017  Episode 009
  1. Asthma Is Associated With Subsequent Development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Population-based Case–Control Study  – CGH
  2. Laboratory predictors of bleeding and the effect of platelet and RBC transfusions on bleeding outcomes in the PLADO trial – Blood
  3. Therapeutic endoscopy-related GI bleeding and thromboembolic events in patients using warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants: results from a large nationwide database analysis – Gut
  4. Major Bleeding Risk During Anticoagulation with Warfarin, Dabigatran, Apixaban, or Rivaroxaban in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation. – J of Managed Care & Spec Pharm
  5. Oral administration of conditioned medium obtained from mesenchymal stem cell culture prevents subsequent stricture formation after esophageal submucosal dissection in pigs. – GIE
  6. High Dietary Intake of Specific Fatty Acids Increases Risk of Flares in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis in Remission During Treatment With Aminosalicylates – CGH
  7. The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Inherited Polyposis Syndromes – Dis of Col and Rectum.
  8. Measurement Bias of Polyp Size at Colonoscopy – Dis of Col and Rectum.
  9. Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis – Am J Gastro.
  10. Rural and Urban Residence During Early Life is Associated with Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease – AmJGastro
  11. What’s new in Rome IV – Neurogastro & Motility
  12. Fecal Calprotectin Levels Predict Histological Healing in Ulcerative Colitis – IBD Journal
  13. Weight and Metabolic Outcomes 12 Years after Gastric Bypass – NEJM
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GI Pearls Episode 6 – First two weeks of July 2017 Gastroenterology Literature Review

Show Notes for 2017 First two weeks of July 006
  1. Treatment with Biologic Agents has not Reduced Surgeries among Patients with Crohn’s Disease with Short Bowel Syndrome – CGH
  2. Risk of colorectal cancer in chronic liver diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis – GIE
  3. Effect of Alternate-Day Fasting on Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Cardioprotection among Metabolically Healthy Obese Adults – JAMA Internal Medicine
  4. Urgent colonoscopy in patients with lower GI bleeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis – GIE
  5. Mobile phone in the stomach:call the emergency endoscopist! – GIE
  6. Impact of gum chewing on the quality of bowel preparation for colonoscopy: an endoscopist-blinded, randomized controlled trial – GIE
  7. Hepatitis B reactivation in Hepatitis B and C coinfected Patients treated with Antiviral Agents: A systematic Review and Meta-analysis. – Hepatology
  8. Gastostomies Preserve But Do Not Increease Quality of Life for Patients and Caregivers – CGH
  9. “Errare Humanum Est, Perseverare Autem Diabolicum” – Gastro
  10. Association of Changes in Diet Quality with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality – NEJM
  11. Association Between Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and Cognitive Function in Women – Gastro
  12. Increased Rate of Adenoma Detection Associates with Reduced Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Death – Gastro
  13. Risk Factors for 30-day Hospital Readmission for Diverticular Hemorrhage. – J of Clinical Gastro
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2017 · CGH · Podcast

GI Pearls Episode 2 – First two weeks of May 2017

Show Notes for 2017 May 1- 15 002

 This one is a bit noisy. Not the Best Microphone. Sorry. 

List of articles cited

  1. Tofacitinib as Induction and Maintenance Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis NEJM
  2. Thiazolidinediones and Advanced Liver Fibrosis in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis  – Jama Internal Medicine
  3. Tenapanor Treatment of Patients With Constipation-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Phase 2, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Efficacy and Safety Trial  The AmJ of Gastro
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Mesenteric Ischemia Review in NEJM

This is a neat little review. 

While I am contemplating 345px-Ischemicbowel.PNGto actually starting a podcast that would review the GI literature in some detail on a monthly basis, i will prepare myself by posting a few reviews of the articles that sparked my interest/I feel are important for a gastroenterologist to be aware of.

I start with the March 10th Issue of NEJM, which has a nice summary article on Mesenteric Ischemia. Now if you are looking for a quick-guide to how to diagnose it or how to treat it – this is NOT the article for you. But if you want the details on exact specificity/sensitivity of different imaging modalities ( it happens to be 85% Sensitive-90% specific on Ultrasound, for example, and CTA is 95-100% Accurate) – then this is the article for you – you can download it and file it away for when you need the info. It is too bad that the authors did not want to make a table such as this (found and cited elsewhere):(which they cite as reference 26)

Screen Shot 2016-03-24 at 8.33.16 PM

But I understand that the aim here was to give a more “comprehensive” view on what mesenteric ischemia is for the general reader.  It has nice figures with examples of CTA with acute embolus to SMA, as well as chronic mesenteric ischemia with occlusion of SMA in setting of a celiac stent occlusion.

For the endoscopists amongst us, nothing is more true:”…endoscopic examination does not reach the majority of sections of the small bowel that are most frequently involved in mesenteric ischemia…” so dont scope of VCE these patients for no reason.

And now for clinical pearl:

Lawrence Brandt – a professor at Albert Einstein College of Medicine – one of the first persons to expose me to the wonderful world of gastroenterology loves to talk about non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia – NOMI  – Overall mortality is 50% – Mostly in patients with cardiac disease/complications/recent cardiac surgery. Papaverine hydrochloride through a catheter infusion can be considered. Not sure where else we can use Papaverine for a GI condition (let me know if you know).

To remember NOMI, Dr. Brandt usually brings up is a person in their 70s, with HTN, has an MI with hypotension, then stented, was put on beta blocker, and clopidogrel/aspirin, then develops severe abdominal pain. Exam is with mild tenderness, labs are unhelpful. INR is 2.1, everything else is ok. What’s the diagnosis? – NOMI!  Why? – vasoconstriction that is persistent,as a reaction to a previous insult, even if precipitating event is gone.

 

References as cited or linked.

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Functional Dyspepsia Review in NEJM 2015

imgresNEJM has a great article here – a summary of latest/greatest on Functional Dyspepsia. An often frustrating diagnosis.

Key Points: 1) Watch out for alarm symptoms, such as dysphagia that is progressive, melena, fam hx of esophageal cancer, iron deficiency anemia, weight loss, etc, but keep in mind that these are of very limited value. The sensitivity of alarm symptoms varied from 0% to 83% with considerable heterogeneity between studies. The specificity also varied significantly from 40% to 98%.

2) Classification may be useful, but probably isn’t – Postprandial distress syndrome versus Epigastric Pain syndrome.  Mainly here to highlight that some of these patients will have issues with gastric emptying.  86% of patients with gastroparesis will have dyspepsia.

3) Pathophysiology – no clear answer here, mostly magical thinking and theories. Probably a link between Brain-Stress-Epithelial Permeability- Eosinophils-Duodenum Sensitivity- etc. etc. etc.

4) Rate of response to placebo is ~40%.

5) The NNT for H.pylori eradication is 15. But only 5% of functional dyspepsia cases will be positive.

6) The NNT for acid suppression/PPI therapy is 10. But most trials with acid suppression happened before Rome III criteria were out, so maybe not.

7) Prokinetic agents are either dangerous, or do not work.

8) Complementary and Alternative Therapies are bogus.

9) Natural history is chronic and fluctuating.

10) Proposed Treatment Algorythm is acceptable.

Bottom Line: Article has great references. No new stuff, but good summary of what we know. File under teaching reference.

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